Sedimentary Modeling

Computerized modeling is a powerful tool to describe the complex interrelations between measured data and the dynamics of sedimentary systems. Complex interaction of environmental factors with natural variations and increasing anthropogenic intervention is reflected in the sedimentary record at varying scales. The understanding of these processes gives way to the reconstruction of the past and is a key to the prediction of future trends. Especially in cases where observations are limited and/or expensive, computer simulations may substitute for the lack of data. 

Geologists associate subenvironments with specific sediment features by observing modern sedimentary environments and the resulting sediments. These features include sediment composition, sediment texture (size, shape and sorting), vertical changes in grain size, and various sedimentary structures such as wave and current ripples, desiccation cracks in mud,plant and animal remains, and bedding thickness. The assortment of sediment features that is typical of a particular subenvironment is called a sedimentary facies.

Geologists compile characteristic facies from each sedimentary environment and produce what is called a facies model. A facies model may be a complex diagram, a table of information, or simply a detailed verbal description. It indicates which sedimentary features characterize a particular environment, and the lateral and vertical distribution of facies within sedimentary deposits.

Geologists use facies models for paleoenvironmental reconstruction—deducing the environment where sediments or sedimentary rocks originate. This is useful for predicting the distribution of economically important earth materials, such as gold, tin, coal, oil, or gas, in a sedimentary deposit. When doing paleoenvironmental reconstructions, geologists look for sources of variation in environmental conditions. For example, rising sea level or a decreasing sediment supply influence the sediment deposit formed, so facies models are altered accordingly. Geologists constantly work on refining facies models to improve the accuracy of paleoenvironmental reconstructions

Our Services

iOG can provide below services

Detailed borehole resistivity image data and interpretation

High-resolution resistivity and acoustic images can reveal important attributes of sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary features can be used to deduce the processes and conditions at time of deposition and derive the overall geologic depositional environment. Basal scour and fill features are highly visible and can be interpreted to provide highly useful channel orientation. Massive sands versus laminated intervals or conglomerates can be easily identified with borehole images as well as revealing if bioturbation has taken place. With advanced resistivity-based technologies, we can detect sand laminations as thin as 0.2 in and provide an accurate net pay count. All of these attributes can be used to corroborate and validate the production selection of one reservoir interval with respect to another one.

Paleocurrent Indication

Very-high-resolution images can be acquired with advanced tools such as the FMI-HD high-definition formation microimager or the MicroScope resistivity- and imaging-while-drilling service. Our experienced petrotechnical experts can carefully analyze these images and reveal important information from them, characterize cross-bedded intervals, and indicate the direction of depositional currents, while can lead to more successful offset wells and more efficient field development.

Porosity Analysis in Carbonates

Many productive carbonates have complex dual-porosity systems with widely varying proportions of primary and secondary porosity. High-resolution borehole electrical images, such as those acquired with the FMI-HD microimager, can be used to quantify the porosity distribution and determine the importance of vugs to the overall effective porosity and permeability. A better understanding of the drivers of reservoir production can be gained in complex heterogeneous carbonate reservoirs through image interpretation, especially when the natural fractures are linked to matrix and vuggy porosity.

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